A Guide To Dry Skin Disorders In The Lower Extremity
Despite possible “dry skin” definition discrepancies across the studies, it is clear that the skin dryness is one of the earliest and most common manifestations of type 1 diabetes. The clinical observations are supported by objective findings of a reduced hydration state of the stratum corneum and decreased sebaceous gland activity in patients with diabetes without any impairment of the stratum corneum barrier function.26
Liver disease. The liver neutralizes toxins and filters bile salts. If the liver’s function is impaired, these materials can accumulate in the body and deposition in the skin causes irritation and itching. In cholestatic liver disorders such as primary sclerosing cholangitis and obstructive gallstone disease, pruritus tends to be generalized but is worse on the feet and hands.27
Dry skin can be persistent and recurring due to the long list of possible causes. Clinicians often treat dry skin with hydrophilic and/or lipophilic moisturizers. Hydrophilic moisturizers must penetrate the stratum corneum deeply to function properly whereas lipophilic moisturizers should remain in the upper stratum corneum layers.28
Traditionally, clinicians used humectant and occlusive technologies to treat dry skin. Originally, non-lamellar forming ingredients such as petrolatum were in use but recent research has shown an advantage of using lamellar-forming factors such as ceramides, pseudoceramides and phospholipids.29
As with all topical treatments, adherence is the great challenge one faces in the management of skin diseases. Strong odor from ingredients and greasy compositions may be disagreeable to the patients. Furthermore, low pH and sensory reactions, from lactic acid and urea for example, may reduce patient acceptance.30
The number of studies on skin barrier function and hydration is endless. There is a long list of products available and some may work better depending on certain skin characteristics of the person. Many podiatry friendly companies have products that include CeraVe (Valeant), Eucerin, AmLactin (Upsher Smith), Cetaphil (Galderma), Borage Therapy (ShiKai), Uramaxin (Medimetriks), Carmol 40, Lubriderm (Johnson and Johnson), and Aveeno (Johnson and Johnson).
Dr. Morse is the President of the American Society of Podiatric Dermatology. He is a Fellow of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons, and the American College of Foot and Ankle Orthopedics and Medicine. Dr. Morse is board certified in foot surgery. He is on the Podiatric Residency Educational Committee at the MedStar Washington Hospital Center in Washington, D.C.
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12. Fujimura T, Takagi Y. Real-life use of underwear treated with fabric softeners improves skin dryness by decreasing the friction of fabrics against the skin. Int J Cosmet Sci. 2011;33(6):566-571.