Dry skin, interdigital fissuring and forefoot plantar hyperkeratosis are all signs and symptoms that may predispose patients to forefoot ulcerations. A diabetic lower extremity examination may seem routine but documenting and addressing these seemingly small changes may deter the devastating effects of peripheral neuropathy. Moisture balance therapy, accommodative shoe gear and routine diabetic foot care remain important factors in the preventative care of the diabetic population.
Essential Principles In Treating Diabetic Forefoot Ulcers
- Volume 26 - Issue 8 - August 2013
- 8452 reads
- 0 comments
1. Boyle JP, Thompson TJ, Gregg EW, Barker LE, Williamson DF. Projection of the year 2050 burden of diabetes in the US adult population: dynamic modeling of incidence, mortality, and prediabetes prevalence. Popul Health Metr. 2010;8:29.
2. Abbott CA, Carrington AL, Ashe H, Bath S, Every LC, Griffiths J, et al. The North West Diabetes Foot Care study: incidence of, and risk factors for, new diabetic foot ulceration in a community-based patient cohort. Diabet Med. 2002;19(5): 377-384
3. Wu SC et. al. Foot ulcers in diabetic patient, prevention, and treatment. Vasc Health Risk Manage. 2007; 3(1): 65-76.
4. Levin ME. Management of the diabetic foot: preventing amputation. South Med J. 2002:95(1):10-20.
5. Evans AR, Pinzur MS. Health-related quality of life of patients with diabetes and foot ulcers. Foot Ankle Int. 2005;26(1):32-7.
6. Galea AM, Springett K, Bungay H, Clift S, Fava S, Cachia M. Incidence and locations of diabetic foot ulcer recurrence. The Diabetic Foot Journal. 2009;12(4):181-189.
7. Katoulis EC, Ebdon-Parry M, Lanshammar H, Vileikyte L, Kulkarni J, Boulton AJ. Gait abnormalities in diabetic neuropathy. Diabetes Care. 1997;20(12): 1904-1907.
8. Johnson CH, Christensen JC. Biomechanics of the first ray part V: the effect of equinus deformity. J Foot Ankle Surg. 2005;44(2):114-120
9. DiGiovanni CW, Kuo R, Tejwani N, Price R, Hansen Jr. ST, Cziernecki J, Sangeorzan BJ. Isolated gastrocnemius tightness. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2002; 84-A(6):962-970.
10. Lavery LA, Armstrong DG, Boulton AJ. Ankle equinus deformity and its relationship to high plantar pressure in a large population with diabetes mellitus. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2002;92(9):479-482.
11. DeHeer P, Borer B. Managing equinus in diabetic patients. Podiatry Today. 2012;25(3):68-75.
12. Radford JA, Burns J, Buchbinder R, Landorf KB, Cook C. Does stretching increase ankle dorsiflexion range of motion? A systematic review. Br J Sports Med. 2006;40(10):870-875.
13. Hill RS. Ankle equinus. Prevalence and linkage to common foot pathology. J Am Podiatr Assoc. 1995;85(6):295-300.
14. Kim PJ. Tendo-Achilles lengthening: friend or foe in the diabetic foot? Podiatry Today. 2007;20(11):20-26.
15. Blitz NM. Surgical Reconstruction of the Failed Tendo-Achilles Lengthening. In Zgonis T (ed.). Surgical Reconstruction of the Diabetic Foot and Ankle. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, 2009.
16. Backonja M, Beydoun A, Edwards KR, et. al. Gabapentin for the symptomatic treatment of painful neuropathy in patients with diabetes mellitus: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 1998; 280(21):1831-1836.
17. Mayers D. Would you cure a profitable disease? Diabetes Health. http://diabeteshealth.com/read/2008/06/11/3162/would-you-cure-a-profitab... . Published October 2003. Accessed June 26, 2013.
18. Jacobs AM. A closer look at motor neuropathy in patients with diabetes. Podiatry Today. 2008;21(9):44-52.
19. Ishpekova B, Daslov M, Muradyan N, Alexandrov A. Clinical and electrophysiological studies in diabetic polyneuropathy. Acta Medica Bulgarica. 2007;34(2):18-22.
20. Anderson H, Nielson S, Mogensen CE, Jakobsen J. Muscle strength in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes. 2004;53(6):1543-1548.
21. Close-Tweedie J. Diabetic foot wounds and wound healing: a review. The Diabetic Foot. 2002; 5(2): 68–78.
22. Sussman C, Bates-Jensen BM. WoundHealing Physiology: Acute and Chronic. In Sussman C, Bates-Jensen BM, eds. Wound Care: A Collaborative Practice Manual for HealthProfessionals. Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, 2007, pp.21-51.
23. (No authors listed). Autonomic testing in patients with diabetes mellitus. Mayo Clinic. http://www.mayoclinic.org/medicalprofs/autonomic-testing-diabetes-mellit... . Accessed June 26, 2013.