(Hodgkin’s or non-Hodgkin’s)
• Guillain-Barré Syndrome
• HIV infection
• Cytomegalovirus infection
• Megaloblastic anemia
• Intracranial tumors
• Brain lesions
• Tumors of the head and neck
• Trauma (direct injury)
• Antineoplastic drugs
• Spinal cord compression
• Direct peripheral
• Obesity or weight loss
• Local tumors such as ganglion or synovial cysts
• Nerve sheath tumors (schwannoma)
• Bone tumors
• Postural (prolonged squatting, sitting or kneeling)
• Prolonged hospitalization
• Bed rest
• Internal surgery
(positioning on table)
• Ankle inversion/sprains
• Orthopedic (fibular fractures)
• Cast immobilization
• Tibial plateau repair/fracture
• Knee arthroplasty
• Hip surgery
Current Concepts In Diagnosing And Treating Drop Foot
1. Dawson DM, Hallett M, Wilbourn AJ, eds. Entrapment Neuropathies, third edition. Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia, 1999.
2. Westhout, FD, Pare LS, Linskey ME. Central causes of drop foot: rare and underappreciated differential diagnoses. J Spinal Cord Med. 2007; 30(1):62–66.
3. Weyns FJ, Beckers F, Vanormelingen L, et al. Drop foot as a complication of weightloss after bariatric surgery: is it preventable? Obes Surgery. 2007; 17(9):1209-12.
4. Ghahreman A, Ferch RD, Rao P, Chandran N, Shadbolt B. Recovery of ankle dorsiflexion weakness following lumbar decompressive surgery. J Clin Neurosci. 2009; 16(8):1024-1027.
5. Ramanan M, Chandran N. Common peroneal nerve decompression. ANZ J Surgery. 2011; 81(10):707-712.
6. Shultz SP, Sitler MR, Tierney RT, Hillstrom HJ, Song J. Consequences of pediatric obesity on the foot and ankle complex. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2012; 102(1):5-12.
7. Da Cunha-Bang SA, Crone C, Christensen T. Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma presenting drop foot. Clinical Neurol Neurosurg. 2012; epub March 22.
8. Kelly JJ, Karcher DS. Lymphoma and peripheral neuropathy: a clinical review. Muscle Nerve. 2005; 31(3):301-13.
9. Koffman BM, Greenfield LJ, Ali II, Pirzada NA. Neurologic complications after surgery for obesity. Muscle Nerve. 2006; 33(2):166-76.
10. Elovic EP, Esquenazi A, Alter KE, et al. Chemodenervation and nerve blocks in the diagnosis and management of spasticity and muscle over activity. Am Acad Phys Med Rehab. 2009; 1(9):842-851.
11. Cameron MH. The WalkAide functional electrical stimulation system – a novel therapeutic approach for drop foot in central nervous system disorders. European Neurological Review. 2010; 5(2):18-20
12. Everaert DG, Thompson AK, Chong SL, Stein RB. Does functional electrical stimulation for drop foot strengthen corticospinal connections? Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2010; 24(2):168-77.
13. Prosser L, et al. Effectiveness of a novel functional electrical stimulation device to improve unilateral drop foot in cerebral palsy. Abstracts of the American Academy of Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine 65th Annual Meeting. October 2011.
14. Ring H, Tregar I, GruendingerL, Hausdorff JM. Neuroprosthesis for footdop compared with an ankle-foot orthosis: effects on postural control during walking. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2009;18(1):41-7.
15. Doug O, Apaydin D, Sevim S, Talas DU, Aral M. Ultrasound-guided versus ‘blind’ injection of botulinum toxin-A for treatment of sialorrhoea in patients with Parkinson’s Disease. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2004; 106:93-96.
16. Yang EJ, Rha D, Yoo JK, Park ES. Accuracy of manual needle placement for gastrocnemius muscle in children with cerebral palsy checked against ultrasonography. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2009:90:741-744.
17. Sabut SK, Sikdar C, Kumar R, Mahadeveppa M. Improvement of gait and muscle strength with functional electrical stimulation in subacute and chronic stroke patients. 33rd Annual International Conference of IEEE EMBS. Boston, Massachusetts, August 30-September 3, 2011.
18. Bale M, Strand LI. Does functional strength training of the leg in subacute stroke improve physical performance? A pilot randomized controlled trial. Clin Rehabil. 2008; 22(10-11):911-921.
19. Gritsenko V, Prochazka A. A functional electric stimulation assisted exercise therapy system for hemiplegic hand function. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2004; 85(6):881-5.
20. Fullerton B, Erler A, Phlmann B, Gerlach FM. Predictors of dropout in German disease management program for type 2 diabetes. BMC Health Services Research 2012; 10:8.
21. Stewart JD. Drop foot: where, why and what to do? Pract Neurol 2008; 8(3):158-69.
22. Kuntz C 4th, Blake L, Britz G. Magnetic resonance neurography of peripheral nerve lesions in the lower extremity. Neurosurgery. 1996; 39(4):750-6; discussion 756-7.
23. Elfar JC, Jacobson JA, Puzas JE, Rosier RN, Zuscik MJ. Erythropoietin accelerates functional recovery after. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2008; 90(8):1644-53.