Examining The Evidence For Preventing Diabetic Foot Ulcers

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Clinical Editor: Lawrence Karlock, DPM

1. Reiber GE. Epidemiology of foot ulcers and amputations in the diabetic foot. In: The Diabetic Foot, pp 13-32, edited by JH Bowker and MA Pfeifer, Mosby, St Louis, 2001.
2. Frykberg RG, Zgonis T, Armstrong DG, et al. Diabetic foot disorders. A clinical practice guideline 2006; 45(5 Suppl):S1-66.
3. Adler AI, Boyko EJ, Ahroni JH et al. Lower-extremity amputation in diabetes. The independent effects of peripheral vascular disease, sensory neuropathy, and foot ulcers. Diabetes Care. 1999; 22(7):1029-35
4. Boyko EJ, Ahroni JH, Cohen V, et al. Prediction of diabetic foot ulcer occurrence using commonly available clinical information: the Seattle Diabetic Foot Study. Diabetes Care. 2006;29(6):1202-7
5. Winkley K, Stahl D, Chalder T et al. Risk factors associated with adverse outcomes in a population-based prospective cohort study of people with their first diabetic foot ulcer. J Diabetes Complications. 2007;21(6):341-9
6. Lavery LA, Armstrong DG, Vela SA, et al. Practical criteria for screening patients at high risk for diabetic foot ulceration. Arch Intern Med. 1998 Jan 26;158(2):157-62.
7. Lavery LA, Peters EJ, Williams JR, et al. International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot. Reevaluating the way we classify the diabetic foot: restructuring the diabetic foot risk classification system of the International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot. Diabetes Care. 2008 Jan;31(1):154-6. Epub 2007 Oct 12.
8. Norgren, et al. Inter-Society Consensus for the Management of Peripheral Arterial Disease (TASC II). J Vasc Surg. Volume 45, Number 1, Supplement S. 2007
9. Armstrong DG, Lavery LA. Diabetic foot ulcers: prevention, diagnosis and classification. Am Fam Physician 1998;57(6):1325-32, 1337–8.
10. McGill M, Molyneaux L, Yue DK. Which diabetic patients should receive podiatry care? An objective analysis. Intern Med J 35(8):451-6, 2005.
11. Frykberg RG. Epidemiology of the diabetic foot: Ulcerations and amputations. Adv Wound Care 12:139-141, 1999.
12. Resnick HE, Valsania P, Phillips CL. Diabetes mellitus and nontraumatic lower extremity amputation in black and white Americans: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Epidemiologic Follow-up Study, 1971-1992. Arch Intern Med. 1999;159(20):2470-5.
13. Chen HF, Ho CA, Li CY. Age and sex may significantly interact with diabetes on the risks of lower-extremity amputation and peripheral revascularization procedures: evidence from a cohort of a half-million diabetic patients. Diabetes Care. 2006;29(11):2409-14
14. Pham H, Armstrong DG, Harvey C, et al. Screening techniques to identify people at high risk for diabetic ulceration. Diabetes Care 23(5):606-11, 2000.
15. Armstrong DG, Holtz-Neiderer K, Wendel C, et al. Skin temperature monitoring reduces the risk for diabetic foot ulceration in high-risk patients. Am J Med. 2007 Dec;120(12):1042-6.
16. Lavery LA, Higgins KR, Lanctot DR, et al. Preventing diabetic foot ulcer recurrence in high-risk patients: use of temperature monitoring as a self-assessment tool. Diabetes Care. 2007;30(1):14-20.
17. Singh N, Armstrong DG, Lipsky BA. Preventing foot ulcers in patients with diabetes. JAMA 2005; 293: 217-28.
18. Wu SC, Driver VR, Wrobel JS, et al. Foot ulcers in the diabetic patient, prevention and treatment. Vasc Health Risk Manag 2007; 3:65-76.
19. Sumpio BE, Aruny J, Blume PA. The multidisciplinary approach to limb salvage. Acta Chir Belg. 2004;104(6):647-53.
20. Reiber GE, Raugi GJ. Preventing foot ulcers and amputations in diabetes. Lancet. 2005;366(9498):1676-7.
21. Reiber GE, Smith DG, Wallace C, et al. Effect of therapeutic footwear on foot reulceration in patients with diabetes: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2002;287(19):2552-8.
22. Maciejewski ML, Reiber GE, Smith DG, et al. Effectiveness of diabetic therapeutic footwear in preventing reulceration. Diabetes Care. 2004;27(7):1774-82

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