Is External Fixation Overutilized In Managing Charcot In The Diabetic Foot?

By George Liu, DPM, FACFAS

25. Walker SC, Helm PA and Pullium G. Total contact casting and chronic diabetic neuropathic foot ulcerations: healing rates by wound location. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 68(4): 217-21, 1987.
26. Yu GV and Hudson JR. Evaluation and treatment of stage 0 Charcot's neuroarthropathy of the foot and ankle. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc, 92(4): 210-20, 2002.
27. Pinzur MS. Neutral ring fixation for high-risk nonplantigrade Charcot midfoot deformity. Foot Ankle Int, 28(9): 961-6, 2007.
28. Goldner MG. The fate of the second leg in the diabetic amputee. Diabetes, 9: 100-3, 1960.
29. Huang CT, Jackson JR, Moore NB, Fine PR, Kuhlemeier KV, Traugh GH and Saunders PT. Amputation: energy cost of ambulation. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 60(1): 18-24, 1979.
30. Waters RL, Perry J Antonelli D and Hislop H. Energy cost of walking of amputees: the influence of level of amputation. J Bone Joint Surg Am, 58(1): 42-6, 1976.
31. Rajbhandari SM, Jenkins RC, Davies C and Tesfaye S. Charcot neuroarthropathy in diabetes mellitus. Diabetologia, 45(8): 1085-96, 2002.
32. Young MJ, Marshall A, Adams JE, Selby PL and Boulton AJ. Osteopenia, neurological dysfunction, and the development of Charcot neuroarthropathy. Diabetes Care, 18(1): 34-8, 1995.
33. Maser RE, Pfeifer MA, Dorman JS, Kuller LH, Becker DJ and Orchard TJ. Diabetic autonomic neuropathy and cardiovascular risk. Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications Study III. Arch Intern Med, 150(6): 1218-22, 1990.
34. Rossi E. Cardiovascular disease in diabetes and operative risk. Rays, 22(4): 595-602, 1997.
35. Sibal L, Law HN, Gebbie J and Home P. Cardiovascular risk factors predicting the development of distal symmetrical polyneuropathy in people with type 1 diabetes: A 9-year follow-up study. Ann NY Acad Sci, 1084: 304-18, 2006.
36. Gazis A, Pound N, Macfarlane R, TreeceK, Game F and Jeffcoate W. Mortality in patients with diabetic neuropathic osteoarthropathy (Charcot foot). Diabet Med, 21(11): 1243-6, 2004.
37. Larsson J, Agardh CD, Apelqvist J and Stenstrom A. Long-term prognosis after healed amputation in patients with diabetes. Clin Orthop Relat Res, (350): 149-58, 1998.
38. Martin L, Farrell M, Lambrenos K and Nayagam D. Living with the Ilizarov frame: adolescent perceptions. J Adv Nurs, 43(5): 478-87, 2003.
39. Patterson M. Impact of external fixation on adolescents: an integrative research review. Orthop Nurs, 25(5): 300-8; quiz 309-10, 2006.
40. Roukis TS, Stapleton JJ and Zgonis T. Addressing psychosocial aspects of care for patients with diabetes undergoing limb salvage surgery. Clin Podiatr Med Surg, 24(3): 601-10, 2007.
41. Herbst SA. External fixation of Charcot arthropathy. Foot Ankle Clin, 9(3): 595-609, x, 2004.
42. Jolly GP, Zgonis T and Polyzois V. External fixation in the management of Charcot neuroarthropathy. Clin Podiatr Med Surg, 20(4): 741-56, 2003.
43. Roukis TS and Zgonis T. The management of acute Charcot fracture-dislocations with the Taylor’s spatial external fixation system. Clin Podiatr Med Surg, 23(2): 467-83, viii, 2006.
44. Sayner LR and Rosenblum BI. External fixation for Charcot foot reconstruction. Curr Surg, 62(6): 618-23, 2005.
45. Wang JC. Use of external fixation in the reconstruction of the Charcot foot and ankle. Clin Podiatr Med Surg, 20(1): 97-117, 2003.
46. Wang JC, Le AW and Tsukuda RK. A new technique for Charcot’s foot reconstruction. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc, 92(8): 429-36, 2002.
47. Zgonis T, Roukis TS and Lamm BM. Charcot foot and ankle reconstruction: current thinking and surgical approaches. Clin Podiatr Med Surg, 24(3): 505-17, 2007.
48. Pinzur MS. Neutral ring fixation for high-risk nonplantigrade Charcot midfoot deformity. Foot Ankle Int 28(9):961-6, 2007.


Add new comment