Preventing Foot Injuries In Diabetic Athletes
- Volume 16 - Issue 8 - August 2003
- 7709 reads
- 0 comments
Key Pointers On Evaluating The Footwear Of Diabetic Athletes
It’s also important to evaluate the diabetic patient’s athletic gear.
Obviously, size is not the only consideration for proper shoe fit as a specific size shoe can come in many different last patterns. One should measure the foot with a dependable measuring device. Shoes should fit properly while the patient is weightbearing. The widest part of the shoe should accommodate the metatarsophalangeal joints. There should be three-eighths to one-half of an inch between the longest toe and the tip of the toe box, and adequate space around the heel. The athletic footwear should also have adequate “breathability” in order to avoid the buildup of thermal energy within the soft tissues of the foot, which can lead to tissue damage.
When they are used properly and have a proper fit, running shoes have been shown to be a valuable aid in reducing plantar foot pressure. In one study, running shoes reduced the tendency for plantar foot callus and decreased forefoot pressure by 30 percent, with pressure reduction of 44 percent under the second metatarsal head.
Since foot orthoses and inserts comprise common treatment modalities for sports related problems, you need to evaluate these as well for appropriateness and condition. About 90 percent of runners continue to use their orthotics after their condition has improved, with an average duration of 23 months. An orthotic device that may have been helpful at one point may be inappropriate or even detrimental two or three years later, and thus must be discontinued or changed.
Patient education is the most important part of managing the diabetic athlete. The education should be designed to meet the needs of each patient, considering his or her athletic activity and diabetic foot status. Obviously, a strategy of prevention is preferable to treatment in terms of cost to the patient and discomfort. The injured athlete should complete a program of rehabilitation in order to successfully return to full activity and continue his or her exercise regimen. If the athlete has healed from a foot ulcer, the goal is to prevent re-ulceration.
Preventing injuries involves proper selection of clothing, shoes and the surface to be trained on, as well as good training techniques and proper preparation. Knowledge of the causes of foot infection, ulcerations and injuries by the athlete is an essential part of the prevention process.
Dr. Caselli (pictured) is Vice President of the greater New York Regional Chapter of the American College of Sports Medicine and is a Professor in the Department of Orthopedic Sciences at the New York College of Podiatric Medicine.
Editor’s Note: For a related article, see “A Comprehensive Review Of Pediatric Orthoses” in the October 2002 issue or check out the archives at www.podiatrytoday.com.
1. Brand PW: Repetitive stress in the development of diabetic foot ulcers. In: Levin ME, O’Neal LW, Bowker JH (eds.) The Diabetic Foot, 2nd ed., St. Louis, Mosby-Yearbook; 1993. pp 83-90.
2. Caselli MA: Foot management guidelines for the diabetic athlete. Podiatry Management November/December 1998; pp 45- 58.
3. Foot screening – care of the foot in diabetes…the Carville approach. Instructional pamphlet. Gillis W. Long Hansen’s Disease Center – Rehabilitation Branch.
4. Gross ML, Davlin LB, Evanski PM: Effectiveness of orthotic shoe inserts in the long- distance runner. American Journal of Sports Medicine 1991; 19(4):pp 409-12.
5. Hough DO: Diabetes mellitus in sports. Medical Clinics of North America 1994; 78(2): pp 423-37.
6. Perry JE, Ulbrecht JS, Derr JA, Cavanagh PR: The use of running shoes to reduce plantar pressures in patients who have diabetes. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 1995; 77-4(12):pp 1819-28.
7. Van Mechelen W: Running injuries. A review of the epidemiological literature. Sports Medicine 1992;14(5): pp 320-35.
8. Wolf SK. Diabetes mellitus and predisposition to athletic pedal fracture. The Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery 1998; 37(1): pp 16-22.